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Sessions of Supreme CourtEdit

The Supreme Court of the United States was established in 1789 by the Judiciary Act of 1789. The size of the court has fluctuated due to congressional acts.

In order to be on the Supreme Court a Justice must be nominated by the President and approved by the Senate. In the court there is one Chief Justice and the number of Associate Justices is determined by legislation.

A session of the court is determined by changes in the court. When a justice retires or an empty seat is created due to court expansion, the session ends. A new session begins when a justice is nominated and confirmed.

Judiciary act of 1789Edit

Under the Judiciary Act of 1789 the Supreme Court was limited to six seats.

Note: Bold means the Justice was new to the court the first term listed. Italics means the justice left without being replaced.

Session Chief Justice Associate Associate Associate Associate Associate Dates
1st John Jay John Rutledge William Cushing Robert H. Harrison James Wilson John Blair September 26, 1789 – February 10, 1790
2nd John Jay John Rutledge William Cushing James Iredell James Wilson John Blair May 12, 1790 – March 5, 1791
3rd John Jay Thomas Johnson William Cushing James Iredell James Wilson John Blair August 5, 1791 – January 16, 1793
4th John Jay William Paterson William Cushing James Iredell James Wilson John Blair March 4, 1793 – June 29, 1795
5th Oliver Ellsworth William Paterson William Cushing James Iredell James Wilson John Blair March 8, 1796 – October 25, 1795
6th Oliver Ellsworth William Paterson William Cushing James Iredell James Wilson Samuel Chase February 4, 1796 – August 21, 1798
7th Oliver Ellsworth William Paterson William Cushing James Iredell Bushrod Washington Samuel Chase February 4, 1799 – October 20, 1799
8th Oliver Ellsworth William Paterson William Cushing Alfred Moore Bushrod Washington Samuel Chase April 21, 1800 – December 15, 1800
9th John Marshall William Paterson William Cushing Alfred Moore Bushrod Washington Samuel Chase February 4, 1801 – September 9, 1806
10th John Marshall Henry Brockholst Livingston William Cushing Alfred Moore Bushrod Washington Samuel Chase January 20, 1807 – January 26, 1804
11th John Marshall William Paterson William Cushing William Johnson Bushrod Washington Samuel Chase May 7, 1804 – May 4, 1807

Court after 1807Edit

In 1807 the Congress increased the number of Justices to seven due to geographical expansion.

Session Chief Justice Associate Justice Associate Justice Associate Justice Associate Justice Associate Justice Associate Justice Dates
12th John Marshall Henry Brockholst Livingston William Cushing William Johnson Bushrod Washington Samuel Chase Thomas Todd May 4, 1807 – September 13, 1810
13th John Marshall Henry Brockholst Livingston Joseph Story William Johnson Bushrod Washington Samuel Chase Thomas Todd February 3, 1812 – June 19, 1811
14th John Marshall Henry Brockholst Livingston Joseph Story William Johnson Bushrod Washington Gabriel Duvall Thomas Todd November 23, 1811 – March 18, 1823
15th John Marshall Smith Thompson Joseph Story William Johnson Bushrod Washington Gabriel Duvall Thomas Todd September 1, 1823 – February 7, 1826
16th John Marshall Smith Thompson Joseph Story William Johnson Bushrod Washington Gabriel Duvall Robert Trimble June 16, 1826 – August 25, 1828
17th John Marshall Smith Thompson Joseph Story William Johnson Bushrod Washington Gabriel Duvall John McLean January 11, 1830 – November 26, 1829
18th John Marshall Smith Thompson Joseph Story William Johnson Henry Baldwin Gabriel Duvall John McLean January 18, 1830 – August 4, 1834
19th John Marshall Smith Thompson Joseph Story James Moore Wayne Henry Baldwin Gabriel Duvall John McLean January 14, 1835 – July 6, 1835
20th Roger B. Taney Smith Thompson Joseph Story James Moore Wayne Henry Baldwin John McLean March 28, 1836 – May 12, 1836
21st Roger B. Taney Smith Thompson Joseph Story James Moore Wayne Henry Baldwin Philip Pendleton Barbour John McLean May 12, 1836 – May 1, 1837

Court after 1837Edit

The Congress again enlarged the court to nine justices due to expansion.

Session Chief Justice Associate Associate Associate Associate Associate Associate Associate Associate
20th Roger B. Taney Smith Thompson Joseph Story James Moore Wayne Henry Baldwin Philip Pendleton Barbour John McLean John Catron John McKinly
21st Roger B. Taney Smith Thompson Joseph Story James Moore Wayne Henry Baldwin Peter Vivian Daniel John McLean John Catron John McKinly
22nd Roger B. Taney Samuel Nelson Joseph Story James Moore Wayne Henry Baldwin Peter Vivian Daniel John McLean John Catron John McKinly
23rd Roger B. Taney Samuel Nelson Levi Woodbury James Moore Wayne Robert Cooper Grier Peter Vivian Daniel John McLean John Catron John McKinly
24th Roger B. Taney Samuel Nelson Benjamin Robbins Curtis James Moore Wayne Robert Cooper Grier Peter Vivian Daniel John McLean John Catron John McKinly
25th Roger B. Taney Samuel Nelson Benjamin Robbins Curtis James Moore Wayne Robert Cooper Grier Peter Vivian Daniel John McLean John Catron John Archibald Campbell
26th Roger B. Taney Samuel Nelson Nathan Clifford James Moore Wayne Robert Cooper Grier Peter Vivian Daniel John McLean John Catron John Archibald Campbell
27th Roger B. Taney Samuel Nelson Nathan Clifford James Moore Wayne Robert Cooper Grier Peter Vivian Daniel Noah Haynes Swayne John Catron John Archibald Campbell
28th Roger B. Taney Samuel Nelson Nathan Clifford James Moore Wayne Robert Cooper Grier Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne John Catron John Archibald Campbell
29th Roger B. Taney Samuel Nelson Nathan Clifford James Moore Wayne Robert Cooper Grier Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne John Catron David Davis

Court after 1863Edit

This was the last of the Supreme Court expansions.

Session Chief Justice Associate Associate Associate Associate Associate Associate Associate Associate Associate
30th Roger B. Taney Samuel Nelson Nathan Clifford James Moore Wayne Robert Cooper Grier Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne John Catron David Davis Stephen Johnson Field
31st Salmon P. Chase Samuel Nelson Nathan Clifford James Moore Wayne Robert Cooper Grier Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne John Catron David Davis Stephen Johnson Field
32nd Salmon P. Chase Samuel Nelson Nathan Clifford James Moore Wayne Robert Cooper Grier Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne David Davis Stephen Johnson Field

Judiciary Act of 1869Edit

In 1866, Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase requested that the next three justices retire without being replaced. After only two justices retired, the Judiciary Act of 1869 raised the number of judges to nine, where it is at today.

Session Chief Justice Associate Justice Associate Justice Associate Justice Associate Justice Associate Justice Associate Justice Associate Justice Associate Justice
33rd Salmon P. Chase Samuel Nelson Nathan Clifford Robert Cooper Grier Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne David Davis Stephen Johnson Field
34th Salmon P. Chase Samuel Nelson Nathan Clifford William Strong Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne David Davis Stephen Johnson Field Joseph Philo Bradley
35th Salmon P. Chase Ward Hunt Nathan Clifford William Strong Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne David Davis Stephen Johnson Field Joseph Philo Bradley
36th Morrison Waite Ward Hunt Nathan Clifford William Strong Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne David Davis Stephen Johnson Field Joseph Philo Bradley
37th Morrison Waite Ward Hunt Nathan Clifford William Strong Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field Joseph Philo Bradley
38th Morrison Waite Ward Hunt Nathan Clifford William Burnham Woods Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field Joseph Philo Bradley
39th Morrison Waite Ward Hunt Nathan Clifford William Burnham Woods Samuel Freeman Miller Thomas Stanley Matthews John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field Joseph Philo Bradley
40th Morrison Waite Ward Hunt Horace Gray William Burnham Woods Samuel Freeman Miller Thomas Stanley Matthews John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field Joseph Philo Bradley
41st Morrison Waite Samuel Blatchford Horace Gray William Burnham Woods Samuel Freeman Miller Thomas Stanley Matthews John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field Joseph Philo Bradley
42nd Morrison Waite Samuel Blatchford Horace Gray Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar Samuel Freeman Miller Thomas Stanley Matthews John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field Joseph Philo Bradley
43rd Melville Fuller Samuel Blatchford Horace Gray Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar Samuel Freeman Miller Thomas Stanley Matthews John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field Joseph Philo Bradley
44th Melville Fuller Samuel Blatchford Horace Gray Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar Samuel Freeman Miller David Josiah Brewer John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field Joseph Philo Bradley
45th Melville Fuller Samuel Blatchford Horace Gray Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar Henry Billings Brown David Josiah Brewer John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field Joseph Philo Bradley
46th Melville Fuller Samuel Blatchford Horace Gray Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar Henry Billings Brown David Josiah Brewer John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field George Shiras, Jr.
47th Melville Fuller Samuel Blatchford Horace Gray Howell Edmunds Jackson Henry Billings Brown David Josiah Brewer John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field George Shiras, Jr.
48th Melville Fuller Edward Douglass White Horace Gray Howell Edmunds Jackson Henry Billings Brown David Josiah Brewer John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field George Shiras, Jr.
49th Melville Fuller Edward Douglass White Horace Gray Rufus Wheeler Peckham Henry Billings Brown David Josiah Brewer John Marshall Harlan Stephen Johnson Field George Shiras, Jr.
50th Melville Fuller Edward Douglass White Horace Gray Rufus Wheeler Peckham Henry Billings Brown David Josiah Brewer John Marshall Harlan Joseph McKenna George Shiras, Jr.
51st Melville Fuller Edward Douglass White Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Rufus Wheeler Peckham Henry Billings Brown David Josiah Brewer John Marshall Harlan Joseph McKenna George Shiras, Jr.
52nd Melville Fuller Edward Douglass White Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Rufus Wheeler Peckham Henry Billings Brown David Josiah Brewer John Marshall Harlan Joseph McKenna William R. Day
53rd Melville Fuller Edward Douglass White Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Rufus Wheeler Peckham William Henry Moody David Josiah Brewer John Marshall Harlan Joseph McKenna William R. Day
54th Melville Fuller Edward Douglass White Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Horace Harmon Lurton William Henry Moody David Josiah Brewer John Marshall Harlan Joseph McKenna William R. Day
55th Melville Fuller Edward Douglass White Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Horace Harmon Lurton William Henry Moody Charles Evans Hughes John Marshall Harlan Joseph McKenna William R. Day
56th Edward Douglass White Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Horace Harmon Lurton William Henry Moody Charles Evans Hughes John Marshall Harlan Joseph McKenna William R. Day
57th Edward Douglass White Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Horace Harmon Lurton Joseph Rucker Lamar Charles Evans Hughes John Marshall Harlan Joseph McKenna William R. Day
58th Edward Douglass White Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Horace Harmon Lurton Joseph Rucker Lamar Charles Evans Hughes Mahlon Pitney Joseph McKenna William R. Day
59th Edward Douglass White Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. James Clark McReynolds Joseph Rucker Lamar Charles Evans Hughes Mahlon Pitney Joseph McKenna William R. Day
60th Edward Douglass White Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis Charles Evans Hughes Mahlon Pitney Joseph McKenna William R. Day
61st Edward Douglass White Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis John Hessin Clarke Mahlon Pitney Joseph McKenna William R. Day
62nd William Howard Taft Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis John Hessin Clarke Mahlon Pitney Joseph McKenna William R. Day
63rd William Howard Taft Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis George Sutherland Mahlon Pitney Joseph McKenna William R. Day
64th William Howard Taft Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis George Sutherland Mahlon Pitney Joseph McKenna Pierce Butler
65th William Howard Taft Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis George Sutherland Edward Terry Sanford Joseph McKenna Pierce Butler
66th William Howard Taft Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis George Sutherland Edward Terry Sanford Harlan Fiske Stone Pierce Butler
67th Charles Evans Hughes Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis George Sutherland Edward Terry Sanford Harlan Fiske Stone Pierce Butler
68th Charles Evans Hughes Willis Van Devanter Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis George Sutherland Owen Josephus Roberts Harlan Fiske Stone Pierce Butler
69th Charles Evans Hughes Willis Van Devanter Benjamin N. Cardozo James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis George Sutherland Owen Josephus Roberts Harlan Fiske Stone Pierce Butler
70th Charles Evans Hughes Hugo Black Benjamin N. Cardozo James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis George Sutherland Owen Josephus Roberts Harlan Fiske Stone Pierce Butler
71st Charles Evans Hughes Hugo Black Benjamin N. Cardozo James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis Stanley Forman Reed Owen Josephus Roberts Harlan Fiske Stone Pierce Butler
72nd Charles Evans Hughes Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter James Clark McReynolds Louis Brandeis Stanley Forman Reed Owen Josephus Roberts Harlan Fiske Stone Pierce Butler
73rd Charles Evans Hughes Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter James Clark McReynolds William O. Douglas Stanley Forman Reed Owen Josephus Roberts Harlan Fiske Stone Pierce Butler
74th Charles Evans Hughes Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter James Clark McReynolds William O. Douglas Stanley Forman Reed Owen Josephus Roberts Harlan Fiske Stone Frank Murphy
75th Harlan Fiske Stone Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter James F. Byrnes William O. Douglas Stanley Forman Reed Owen Josephus Roberts Robert H. Jackson Frank Murphy
76th Harlan Fiske Stone Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter James F. Byrnes William O. Douglas Stanley Forman Reed Owen Josephus Roberts Harlan Fiske Stone Frank Murphy
77th Harlan Fiske Stone Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter Wiley Blount Rutledge William O. Douglas Stanley Forman Reed Owen Josephus Roberts Robert H. Jackson Frank Murphy
78th Harlan Fiske Stone Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter Wiley Blount Rutledge William O. Douglas Stanley Forman Reed Harold Hitz Burton Robert H. Jackson Frank Murphy
79th Fred M. Vinson Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter Wiley Blount Rutledge William O. Douglas Stanley Forman Reed Harold Hitz Burton Robert H. Jackson Frank Murphy
80th Fred M. Vinson Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter Wiley Blount Rutledge William O. Douglas Stanley Forman Reed Harold Hitz Burton Robert H. Jackson Tom C. Clark
81st Fred M. Vinson Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter Sherman Minton William O. Douglas Stanley Forman Reed Harold Hitz Burton Robert H. Jackson Tom C. Clark
82nd Earl Warren Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter Sherman Minton William O. Douglas Stanley Forman Reed Harold Hitz Burton Robert H. Jackson Tom C. Clark
83rd Earl Warren Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter Sherman Minton William O. Douglas Stanley Forman Reed Harold Hitz Burton John Marshall Harlan II Tom C. Clark
84th Earl Warren Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter William J. Brennan William O. Douglas Stanley Forman Reed Harold Hitz Burton John Marshall Harlan II Tom C. Clark
85th Earl Warren Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter William J. Brennan William O. Douglas Charles Evans Whittaker Harold Hitz Burton John Marshall Harlan II Tom C. Clark
86th Earl Warren Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter William J. Brennan William O. Douglas Charles Evans Whittaker Potter Stewart John Marshall Harlan II Tom C. Clark
87th Earl Warren Hugo Black Felix Frankfurter William J. Brennan William O. Douglas Byron White Potter Stewart John Marshall Harlan II Tom C. Clark
88th Earl Warren Hugo Black Arthur Goldberg William J. Brennan William O. Douglas Byron White Potter Stewart John Marshall Harlan II Tom C. Clark
89th Earl Warren Hugo Black Abe Fortas William J. Brennan William O. Douglas Byron White Potter Stewart John Marshall Harlan II Tom C. Clark
90th Earl Warren Hugo Black Abe Fortas William J. Brennan William O. Douglas Byron White Potter Stewart John Marshall Harlan II Thurgood Marshall
91st Warren E. Burger Hugo Black Abe Fortas William J. Brennan William O. Douglas Byron White Potter Stewart John Marshall Harlan II Thurgood Marshall
92nd Warren E. Burger Hugo Black Harry Blackmun] William J. Brennan William O. Douglas Byron White Potter Stewart John Marshall Harlan II Thurgood Marshall
93rd Warren E. Burger Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. Harry Blackmun William J. Brennan William O. Douglas Byron White Potter Stewart John Marshall Harlan II Thurgood Marshall
94th Warren E. Burger Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. Harry Blackmun William J. Brennan William O. Douglas Byron White Potter Stewart William Rehnquist Thurgood Marshall
95th Warren E. Burger Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. Harry Blackmun William J. Brennan John Paul Stevens Byron White Potter Stewart William Rehnquist Thurgood Marshall
96th Warren E. Burger Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. Harry Blackmun William J. Brennan John Paul Stevens Byron White Sandra Day O'Connor William Rehnquist Thurgood Marshall
97th William Rehnquist Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. Harry Blackmun William J. Brennan John Paul Stevens Byron White Sandra Day O'Connor Antonin Scalia Thurgood Marshall
98th William Rehnquist Anthony Kennedy Harry Blackmun William J. Brennan John Paul Stevens Byron White Sandra Day O'Connor Antonin Scalia Thurgood Marshall
99th William Rehnquist Anthony Kennedy Harry Blackmun David Souter John Paul Stevens Byron White Sandra Day O'Connor Antonin Scalia Thurgood Marshall
100th William Rehnquist Anthony Kennedy Harry Blackmun David Souter John Paul Stevens Byron White Sandra Day O'Connor Antonin Scalia Clarence Thomas
101st William Rehnquist Anthony Kennedy Harry Blackmun David Souter John Paul Stevens Ruth Bader Ginsburg Sandra Day O'Connor Antonin Scalia Clarence Thomas
102nd William Rehnquist Anthony Kennedy Stephen Breyer David Souter John Paul Stevens Ruth Bader Ginsburg Sandra Day O'Connor Antonin Scalia Clarence Thomas
103rd John Roberts Anthony Kennedy Stephen Breyer David Souter John Paul Stevens Ruth Bader Ginsburg Sandra Day O'Connor Antonin Scalia Clarence Thomas
104th John Roberts Anthony Kennedy Stephen Breyer David Souter John Paul Stevens Ruth Bader Ginsburg Samuel Alito Antonin Scalia Clarence Thomas
105th John Roberts Anthony Kennedy Stephen Breyer Sonia Sotomayor John Paul Stevens Ruth Bader Ginsburg Samuel Alito Antonin Scalia Clarence Thomas

See alsoEdit

List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States by court composition
List of nominations to the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States

ReferencesEdit

List of nominations to the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States

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