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This is article is on modern empires' loss of European territory. For information on independence dates of European countries see the list of European countries by date of independence.

The Empires of the Modern Age have endured dissolution or separation of some of their territories in Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. Such foreign controlling powers and the processes of separation from them include the breakup of the German, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman Empires (in the late 19th and early 20th century up to the aftermath of the World War I); of the British (mostly after World War II); of the Russian Empire and its successor (mostly after the Cold War); and others.

TimelineEdit

This is a list of all present sovereign states in Europe, sorted according to their latest date of separation from a Modern empire, if applicable. When not applicable the entry is included, only as relevant to the historical context of the other events and that is why its "foreign power" and "previous name" columns are merged in order to denote that this is a territory, where current countries are established, that have achieved independence in different way.      separation from overseas foreign controlling power      separation from neighboring foreign controlling power      achieved independence in different way

Country[1] Previous name Foreign power[2] Independence date[3] First head of state[4] War for independence
San Marino Separation from the Roman Empire 3 September 301
Denmark Consolidation during the Viking Age 8th century Ongendus -
France Dissolution of the Carolingian Empire 10 August 843 Charles the Bald -
United Kingdom Unification of the Kingdom of England 927 Athelstan the Glorious
Andorra Established as Paréage between Urgell and Foix[5] 1278 Pere d'Urtx and Roger-Bernard III
Turkey[6] Established in Anatolia of the Byzantine Empire 1299[7] Osman I Byzantine–Ottoman Wars
Russia[6] Grand Duchy of Moscow terminates Mongol vassalage 8 September 1380[8] Dmitry of Moscow Battle of Kulikovo
Spain Unification under the Catholic Monarchs 1469 Isabella I and Ferdinand II Reconquista
Switzerland Separation from the Holy Roman Empire 22 September 1499 Swabian War
Sweden Separation from the Danish crown and the Kalmar Union 6 June 1523 Gustav I Swedish War of Liberation
Portugal Separation from the Spanish crown 13 February 1668 John IV Portuguese Restoration War
Austria Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire 6 August 1806[9] Francis I War of the Third Coalition
Liechtenstein Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire 1806 Johann I Joseph -
Netherlands Separation from France 16 March 1815 William I Napoleonic Wars
Greece Greece Ottoman 1 January 1822[10] Alexandros Mavrokordatos Greek War of Independence
Belgium Separation of the Southern Provinces from the Netherlands 4 October 1830 Leopold I Belgian Revolution
Italy Unification as the Kingdom of Italy 17 March 1861 Victor Emmanuel II Wars of Italian Independence
Monaco End of French protectorate 1861 Charles III -
Germany Unification as the German Empire 18 January 1871 William I -
Montenegro Principality of Montenegro Ottoman 13 July 1878[11][12] Nicholas I Battle of Grahovac
Serbia Principality of Serbia Ottoman 13 July 1878[13][12] Milan Obrenović IV Serbian revolution
Romania Wallachia and Moldavia Ottoman/Great Powers[14] 13 July 1878[15] Carol I National awakening of Romania
Luxembourg Separation from the Dutch crown 23 November 1890 Adolphe -
Norway Separation from the Swedish crown 26 October 1905 Haakon VII -
Bulgaria Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia Ottoman 5 October 1908[16] Ferdinand I National awakening of Bulgaria
Albania Albania Ottoman 28 November 1912 Ismail Qemali First Balkan War, Occupation
Finland Finland Russia 4 January 1918 Pehr Evind Svinhufvud Finnish Civil War
Czech Republic
as part of the Czechoslovak Republic
Bohemia and Moravia Austria-Hungary 28 October 1918[17] Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk World War I
Slovakia
as part of the Czechoslovak Republic
Slovakia Austria-Hungary 28 October 1918[17] Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk World War I
Slovenia
as part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
Slovenia Austria-Hungary 29 October 1918[12] Anton Korošec World War I
Croatia
as part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
Croatia-Slavonia Austria-Hungary 29 October 1918[12] Anton Korošec World War I
Bosnia and Herzegovina
as part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
Bosnia and Herzegovina Austria-Hungary 29 October 1918[12] Anton Korošec World War I
Hungary Hungary Austria-Hungary 31 October 1918 Mihály Károlyi Aster Revolution
Poland Poland Germany/Russia[18] 11 November 1918 Józef Piłsudski World War I
Ireland Southern Ireland Britain 6 December 1922 W. T. Cosgrave Irish War of Independence
Vatican City Separation of the Vatican compound from Italy 11 February 1929 Pius XI Prisoner in the Vatican
Iceland Iceland Denmark 17 June 1944 Sveinn Björnsson -
Cyprus[19] Cyprus Britain 16 August 1960 Makarios III -[20]
Malta Malta Britain 21 September 1964 Giorgio Borg Olivier -
Lithuania Vilna,
Lithuanian SSR
Russia 16 February 1918,
11 March 1990[21]
Mindaugas II,
Vytautas Landsbergis
Lithuanian Wars of Independence,
Vilnius massacre, OMON assaults
Georgia[6] Georgian SSR Russia 9 April 1991 Zviad Gamsakhurdia April 9 tragedy, South Ossetia War, prelude to Abkhazia War
Estonia Estonia,
Estonian SSR
Russia 24 February 1918,
20 August 1991[22]
Konstantin Päts,
Arnold Rüütel
Estonian War of Independence,
-
Latvia Courland and Livonia,
Latvian SSR
Russia 18 November 1918,
21 August 1991[21]
Kārlis Ulmanis,
Anatolijs Gorbunovs
Latvian War of Independence,
OMON assaults
Moldova Moldovan SSR Russia 27 August 1991 Mircea Snegur prelude to Transnistria War
Macedonia Macedonia Ottoman; Serbia[23] 8 September 1991[12] Kiro Gligorov -
Armenia[19] Armenian SSR Russia 21 September 1991 Levon Ter-Petrossian -[24]
Azerbaijan[6] Azerbaijan SSR Russia 18 October 1991 Ayaz Mutalibov Black January
Belarus Byelorussian SSR Russia 8 December 1991 Stanislav Shushkyevich -
Ukraine Ukrainian SSR Russia 8 December 1991 Leonid Kravchuk -
Kazakhstan[6] Kazakh SSR Russia 16 December 1991 Nursultan Nazarbayev -

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Timeline list arranged according to current countries. Explanatory notes are added in cases where separation was achieved jointly or where the current state is formed by merger of previously separated states.
  2. Some territories changed hands multiple times, so in the list is mentioned the last foreign power.
  3. Date of last separation from a modern empire. Temporary occupations or separations during civil or other wars do not apply. Dates for territories annexed by or integrated into previously separated independent countries are given in separate notes. Subsequent mergers, secessions and civil and other wars in the period after the separation and the resulting states and federations are not part of this list - see the list of sovereign states by formation date.
  4. First head of state after independence. For current and former Commonwealth realms instead of first head of state is listed the first head of government.
  5. Paréage Co-Principality between the Bishops of Urgell (Spain) and Counts of Foix (France).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Transcontinental country, partially located in Europe.
  7. Turkey succeeded the Ottoman Empire on July 24, 1923 following the Turkish War of Independence against the some of the Entente Powers of the World War I.
  8. Following gradual territorial expansion that peaked under the Russian Empire and the USSR the current Russian Federation succeeded the USSR on 26 December 1991.
  9. The Austrian Empire existed between until 30 March 1867 when it was renamed Austria-Hungary following the granting of internal self-government to Hungary. On 31 October 1918 it was succeeded by German Austria when Austria-Hungary dissolved.
  10. Recognized on 7 May 1832 by the Convention of London
  11. The Principality of Montenegro was established in 1852 as Ottoman vassal and on July 13, 1878 it gained independence.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 The Kingdom of Montenegro on 28 November 1918 joined the Kingdom of Serbia and on 1 December 1918 together with the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs they formed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes to be renamed in 1929 to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of SFR Yugoslavia the following states were established: Slovenia (25 June 1991), Croatia (8 October 1991), Macedonia (8 September 1991), Bosnia and Herzegovina (6 April 1992) and FR Yugoslavia that itself dissolved on 3 June 2006 when Montenegro separated from Serbia. The state with limited recognition Kosovo declared independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008.
  13. The Principality of Serbia was established in 1817 as Ottoman vassal and on July 13, 1878 it gained independence.
  14. After a period under joint Ottoman suzerainty and Russian military rule (following the Treaty of Adrianople of 1829) the two principalities of Romania were placed under a tutelage shared by the Ottoman Empire and a Congress of Great Powers (Britain, France, the Piedmont-Sardinia, Austria-Hungary, Prussia, Russia) by the Treaty of Paris in 1856.
  15. The united Romanian Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia gained independence on July 13, 1878.
  16. The Principality of Bulgaria was established in 1878 as Ottoman vassal, on 18 September 1885 it unilaterally annexed the Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia and on October 5, 1908 it gained independence.
  17. 17.0 17.1 The Czech Republic and Slovakia peacefully separated on 31 December 1992.
  18. The Second Polish Republic was constituted primarily over former territories of the German Empire and Russian Empire, but also included some parts of Austria-Hungary.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Transcontinental country, located in Asia, but sometimes considered European.
  20. Armed struggles by the EOKA (Greek) and TMT (Turkish) organizations.
  21. 21.0 21.1 During the World War I and the Russian Civil War in 1917 and 1918 were established independent governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova and Ukraine. Only Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania retained their independence after the end of the civil war, but they were reconquered in 1940 during World War II.
  22. During the World War I and the Russian Civil War in 1917 and 1918 were established independent governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova and Ukraine. Only Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania retained their independence after the end of the civil war, but they were reconquered in 1940 during World War II.
  23. The Kingdom of Serbia captured the territory of Macedonia in 1912. In 1929 the Kingdom of Yugoslavia established there the Vardar Banovina. In 1944, most of its territory was transferred into a separate republic while the northernmost parts of the province remained with Serbia. In 1946, the new republic was granted federal status as an autonomous "People's Republic of Macedonia" within the new Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the 1963 Constitution of Yugoslavia it was slightly renamed, to bring it in line with the other Yugoslav republics, as the Socialist Republic of Macedonia that ultimately gained independence in 1991.
  24. There were small scale firefights between Armenian militiamen and Soviet troops

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