FANDOM


This is a list of all present sovereign states in Europe (including Eurasia), sortable by their date of achieving sovereignty.

Date of achieving sovereignty Sovereign state
Current official name
Mode of achieving sovereignty
Milestones
3 September 301 San Marino
The Most Serene Republic of San Marino
I: Roman Empire
3 September 301Saint Marinus founded San Marino[1] as an independent city-state from the Roman Empire.
8 October 1600 – The Constitution of San Marino was adopted.[1]
843 France
The French Republic[2]
D: Carolingian Empire
486Frankish tribes unified.[2]
843 – The Treaty of Verdun divided the Carolingian Empire into East Francia, Middle Francia and West Francia, with the latter becoming France.[2]
4 October 1958 – The Constitution of the Fifth Republic replaced the French Fourth Republic with the French Fifth Republic.[2]
965 Denmark
The Kingdom of Denmark
U: Unification of Danish tribes under Harald I
26 July 1139 Portugal
The Portuguese Republic
I: Kingdom of León
26 July 1139Afonso I of Portugal was proclaimed King of the Kingdom of Portugal.
1210 Sweden
The Kingdom of Sweden
U: Unification of Swedish tribes under Eric X
1278 Andorra
The Principality of Andorra
I: Kingdom of France
1278 – The Principality of Andorra gained independence through the first Paréage.
Early August 1291 Switzerland
The Swiss Confederation
I: Holy Roman Empire
1297 Monaco
The Principality of Monaco
I: Republic of Genoa
1581 Netherlands
The Kingdom of the Netherlands
I: Crown of Castile
1 May 1707 United Kingdom (UK)
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
U: Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland
1535 and 1542 – The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were passed and England annexed Wales, becoming the joint country of England and Wales.
24 March 1603King James VI of Scotland was proclaimed king of England and the two countries have been united under the same monarch since.
1 May 1707 – The Treaty of Union and Acts of Union 1707 merged the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1 January 1801 – The Acts of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
12 April 1927 – The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 changed the state's name to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, officially recognising of the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
1716 Spain
The Kingdom of Spain
U: Crown of Aragon and Crown of Castile
3 February 1830 Greece
The Hellenic Republic
I: Ottoman Empire
3 February 1830 – The first London Protocol recognised Greece's independence.
21 July 1832 – The Treaty of Constantinople established the borders of the Kingdom of Greece.
30 August 1832 – The second London Protocol reiterated and ratified the Treaty of Constantinople.
1830 Belgium
The Kingdom of Belgium
I: United Kingdom of the Netherlands
1861 Italy
The Italian Republic
U: Duchy of Modena and Reggio, Duchy of Parma, Kingdom of Sardinia, Tuscany, Kingdom of Two Sicilies[3]
1862 Romania
Romania
I: Ottoman Empire
1866 Liechtenstein
The Principality of Liechtenstein
D: German Confederation[4]
1890 Luxembourg
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
I: Personal union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands[5]
1905 Norway
The Kingdom of Norway
I: Union with Sweden
1908 Bulgaria
The Republic of Bulgaria
I: Ottoman Empire
1912 Albania
The Republic of Albania
I: Ottoman Empire
1917 Finland
The Republic of Finland
I: Russian Empire
1918 Lithuania
The Kingdom of Lithuania
I: Russian Empire
11 March 1990 – independence from the Soviet Union declared.
6 September 1991 – independence recognised by the Soviet Union.
1918 Estonia
The Republic of Estonia
I: Russian Empire
20 August 1991 – independence from the Soviet Union declared.
6 September 1991 – independence recognised by the Soviet Union.
1918 Hungary
The Republic of Hungary
D: Austria-Hungary
1918 Austria
The Republic of Austria
D: Austria-Hungary
1918 Latvia
The Republic of Latvia
I: Russian Empire
21 August 1991 – independence from the Soviet Union declared.
6 September 1991 – independence recognised by the Soviet Union.
1918 Iceland
Iceland
I: Kingdom of Denmark
1918 Poland
The Republic of Poland
I: Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russian Empire
1922 Ireland
Ireland
I: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
12 April 1927 – The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 officially recognised of the independence of the Irish Free State from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1922.
1923 Turkey
The Republic of Turkey
D: Ottoman Empire
1929 Vatican City
The State of the Vatican City
I: Kingdom of Italy
1960 Cyprus
The Republic of Cyprus
I: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
1964 Malta
The Republic of Malta
I: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
1990 Germany
The Federal Republic of Germany
U: East Germany and West Germany
9 April 1991 Georgia
Georgia
D: Soviet Union
26 December 1991 – independence recognised by the Soviet Union
25 August 1991 Belarus
The Republic of Belarus
D: Soviet Union
25 December 1991 – independence recognised by the Soviet Union
27 August 1991 Moldova
The Republic of Moldova
D: Soviet Union
30 August 1991 Azerbaijan
The Republic of Azerbaijan
D: Soviet Union
21 September 1991 Armenia
The Republic of Armenia
D: Soviet Union
25 December 1991 – independence recognised by the Soviet Union
16 December 1991 Kazakhstan
The Republic of Kazakhstan
D: Soviet Union
25 December 1991 Russia
The Russian Federation
D: Soviet Union
successor of the original state
25 December 1991 Ukraine
Ukraine
D: Soviet Union
1991 Croatia
The Republic of Croatia
D: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1991 Macedonia
The Republic of Macedonia
D: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1991 Slovenia
The Republic of Slovenia
D: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1992 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
D: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
October 1991 – Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia.
1 January 1993 Czechia
The Czech Republic
D: Czechoslovakia
1 January 1993 – The Czech and Slovak Federative Republic officially separated into the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
1 January 1993 Slovakia
The Slovak Republic
D: Czechoslovakia
17 July 1992Slovakia demanded independence.
1 January 1993 – The Czech and Slovak Federative Republic officially separated into the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
3 June 2006 Montenegro
Montenegro
D: State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
21 May 2006 – The Montenegrin independence referendum voted in favour of independence.
3 June 2006 – Montenegro proclaimed independence from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.
5 June 2006Serbia proclaimed independence and Serbia and Montenegro officially separated into the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro.
5 June 2006 Serbia
The Republic of Serbia
D: State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
5 June 2006 – Serbia proclaimed independence and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro officially separated into the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro, with Serbia claiming to be the successor the original state.
17 February 2008 Kosovo
The Republic of Kosovo
I: Republic of Serbia
22 September 1991 – The Republic of Kosova declared independence but was unrecognised.
17 February 2008 – Kosovo declared independence from the Republic of Serbia, but is still unrecognised by Serbia.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit


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