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This List of killings of Muhammad contains information about: results and reasons for the targeted killings (or assassinations) ordered by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, as well as the primary sources which mention the killings. The list contains killings that Muhammad personally ordered and ones he only supported.

List of KillingsEdit

Key/Legend

      Ordered by Muhammad       Supported but not ordered by Muhammad

No. Name Date Muhammad's reason for ordering or supporting killing Result Notable Primary sources
1 'Asma' bint Marwan January 624 [1] Kill 'Asma' bint Marwan for opposing Muhammad with poetry and for provoking others to attack him[2][3][4]
  • Asma' bint Marwan assassinated[5][6]
2 Abu 'Afak February 624 [8] Kill Abu Afak for opposing Muhammad through poetry[3][7][9][10]
3 Al Nadr ibn al-Harith After Battle of Badr
March 624[14]
According to Mubarakpuri, Al Nadir was captured during the Battle of Badr. A Quran verse was revealed ordering the execution of Nadr bin Harith, he was one of two prisoners who were executed and not allowed to be ransomed by their clans because he mocked and harassed Muhammad and wrote poems and stories criticising him[14][15]
4 Uqba bin Abu Muayt After Battle of Badr
March 624[14]
Uqba bin Abu Muayt was captured in the Battle of Badr and was killed instead of being ransomed, because he threw dead animal entrails on Muhammad, and wrapped his garmet around Muhammad's neck while he was praying[14][18]
  • Uqba bin Abu Muayt beheaded by Asim ibn Thabbit or Ali[14][19]
5 Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf September 624 [23][24][25] [26] According to Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad ordered his followers to kill Ka'b because he "had gone to Mecca after Badr and inveighed against Muhammad. He also composed verses in which he bewailed the victims of Quraysh who had been killed at Badr. Shortly afterwards he returned to Medina and composed amatory verses of an insulting nature about the Muslim women".[27][28]
  • Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf assassinated[28]
6 Abu Rafi' ibn Abi Al-Huqaiq December 624 [29] Kill Abu Rafi' ibn Abi Al-Huqaiq for mocking Muhammad with his poetry and for helping the troops of the Confederates by providing them with money and supplies[30][31]
7 Khalid ibn Sufyan 625 [36] Kill Khalid bin Sufyan, because there were reports he considered an attack on Madinah and that he was inciting the people on Nakhla or Uranah to fight Muslims[36] [37]
  • Khalid ibn Sufyan assassinated[36] [38]
8 Abu 'Azzah 'Amr bin 'Abd Allah al-Jumahi March 625[43] Behead Abu 'Azzah 'Amr bin 'Abd Allah al-Jumahi because he was a prisoner of War captured during the Invasion of Hamra al-Asad, that Muhammad released once, but he took up arms against him again[44][45]
  • Tabari, Volume 7, The foundation of the community[45]
9 Muawiyah bin Al Mugheerah March 625[43] Kill Muawiyah bin Al Mugheerah, because he was accused by Muhammad of being a spy. He went to Uthman (his cousin) for shelter, and Uthman arranged for his return to Mecca, but he stayed to long in Medina. After Muhammad heard he was still in Medina, he ordered his death[44][46]
  • Muawiyah bin Al Mugheerah captured and executed[44][47]
10 Al-Harith bin Suwayd al-Ansari March 625[43] Kill Al-Harith bin Suwayd because according to Islamic tradition, Allah revealed Quran 3:86, which indicated that those who reject Islam after accepting it should be put to death. Al-Harith bin Suwayd was a Muslim who fought in the Battle of Uhud and killed some Muslims, he then joined the Quraysh and left Islam. Al-Harith sent his brother to Muhammad for his forgiveness. Muhammad allowed his return but then decided to kill him.[47][48][49][50]
11 Abu Sufyan 627 [51] Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri sent to assassinate Abu Sufyan (Quraysh leader)[52][52]
  • 3 polytheists killed by Muslims[52]
  • Tabari, Volume 7, The foundation of the community[53]
12 Banu Qurayza tribe February–March 627 [54]

Attack Banu Qurayza because according to Muslim tradition he had been ordered to do so by the angel Gabriel.[55][56][57][58][59][60] One of Muhammad's companions decided that "the men should be killed, the property divided, and the women and children taken as captives". Muhammad approved of the ruling, calling it similar to God's judgment,[58][59][61][62][63] after which all male members of the tribe who had reached puberty were beheaded [56][64]

  • Muslims: 2 killed[55]
  • Non-Muslims:
  1. 600-900 beheaded (Tabari, Ibn Hisham)
    [55][56][65]
  2. All Males and 1 woman beheaded
    (Sunni Hadith)[66][67]
14 Al-Yusayr ibn Rizam February 628 [51] Kill Al-Yusayr ibn Rizam because Muhammad heard that his group was preparing to attack him[71][72]
15 Expedition of Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri February 628 [51] Kill 8 men who came to him to convert to Islam, but then killed one Muslm and drove off with Muhammad's camels[75]
  • Muslims: 1 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 8 tortured to death[75][76]
16 Rifa’ah bin Qays 629 [78][79] To kill Rifa’ah bin Qays, because Muhammad heard they were allegedly enticing the people people of Qais to fight him[79]
  • 1 beheaded,[80] 4 women captured by Muslims[81]
17 Abdullah bin Khatal During/after Conquest of Mecca
(Jan 630)[82][83][84]
Kill Abdullah bin Khatal for killing a slave and fleeing, as well and for reciting poems insulting Muhammad[82][83][84]
  • 2 Muslims execute him, after finding him hiding under the curtains of the Ka'ba[82][83][84]
18 Fartana During/after Conquest of Mecca
(Jan 630)[82][87]
Kill Fartana (a slave girl of Abdullah ibn Khatal), because she used to recite poems insulting Muhammad[82][84]
20 Huwayrith ibn Nafidh During/after Conquest of Mecca
(Jan 630)[82]
When Muhammad's daughters were fleeing Medina, he stabbed their camels, causing injuries. He was a poet who disgraced and abused Islam[82][84][89]
21 Miqyas ibn Subabah During/after Conquest of Mecca
(Jan 630)[82]
Miqyas killed a Muslim who accidentally killed his brother, and escaped to Makkah and became an apostate by embracing polytheism[82][84][85][89]
22 Sarah During/after Conquest of Mecca
(Jan 630)[82]
Kill Sarah, because Muhammad claimed that she used to molest him while he was in Mecca[82][85]
  • Conflicting reports
  1. Ibn Ishaq reports that she embraced Islam but was killed later, during the time of Umar[85]
  2. Tabari reports she was killed[90]
  3. Wahiduddin Khan (modern Muslim scholar) claims she was pardoned[82]
25 Habbar Ibn al-Aswad bin Ka`b al-`Ansi During/after Conquest of Mecca
(Jan 630)[82]
Kill Habbar ibn al-Aswad, according to Wahiduddin Khan, this was because while Muhammad's daughters were fleeing from Mecca, he attacked there camels, causing it to fall down, which injured his daughters.[82] Tabari and Sahih Bukhari states that he was killed because he was a liar,[91][92] he claimed he was a Prophet[91]
  • Conflicting reports:
  1. Tabari and the Sahih Bukhari hadith collection claim he was killed[91][92]
  2. Wahiduddin Khan (modern Muslim scholar) claims he was forgiven and pardoned[82]
26 Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl During/after Conquest of Mecca
(Jan 630)[82]
Kill Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl, bcause he was hostile to Muhammad like his father Abu Jahl[82][85]
  • Conflicting reports
  1. Ibn Ishaq says, his wife "became a Muslim and asked for immunity for him and the apostle gave it"[85] Wahiduddin Khan also claims he was pardoned[82]
  2. Tabari says he was "eliminated"[95]
29 Al-Harith bin al-Talatil During/after Conquest of Mecca
(Jan 630)[82]
For mocking Muhammad through poetry[82]
  • Al-Harith bin al-Talatil is killed by Ali[82][96]
30
34 King or Prince of Dumatul Jandal October 630 [97] Attack the chief of Duma for Jizyah and booty[98][99]
  • 1 killed, 2 taken captive[100]
35 Umaiya bin Khalaf Abi Safwan Unknown Kill Umaiya bin Khalaf, Muhammad's reason is unknown.[102] But Bilal wanted to kill him for torturing him[103]
36 Blind mans wife Unknown Muhammad supported this killing because the women insulted him[104][105]
37 Ibn Sunayna Unknown Muhammad reportedly ordered his followers to "kill any Jew that falls into your power", Muhayissa heard this and went out to kill Ibn Sunayna (a Jew)[108][109][110]
41 Nameless spy Unknown Kill a man Muhammad suspected of being a spy[113][114]
  • Salama bin Al-Akwa chases and kills the suspected spy[113][115]
42 Man from Aslam tribe Unknown Kill a man from the Aslam tribe for Adultery[116][117]
43 Kinana ibn al-Rabi Unknown Torture Kinana ibn al-Rabi to find location of allegedly hidden treasure[119][120]

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. William Muir (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 130, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YDwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=front 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 35. ASIN B0007JAWMK. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&q. "SARIYYAH OF `UMAYR IBN `ADI. Then (occurred) the sariyyah of `Umayr ibn `Adi Ibn Kharashah al-Khatmi against `Asma' Bint Marwan, of Banu Umayyah Ibn Zayd, when five nights had remained from the month of Ramadan, in the beginning of the nineteenth month from the hijrah of the apostle of Allah." 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Ellison Banks Findly (1985). Women, religion, and social change. NewYork: SUNY Press. pp. 24. ISBN 0-88706-069-2. 
  4. William Muir (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 130, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YDwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=front 
  5. William Muir (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 130, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YDwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=front 
  6. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, p. 210.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, pp. 675-676.
  8. William Muir (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 133, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YDwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=front 
  9. William Muir (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 133, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YDwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=front 
  10. De Mahdi Rizqullah Ahmad, Darussalam, A Biography of the Prophet of Islam (Vol 1 & 2), p. 433.
  11. William Muir (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 133, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YDwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=front 
  12. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, p. 675.
  13. Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 31. ASIN B0007JAWMK. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&q. ""Then occurred the "sariyyah" of Salim Ibn Umayr al-Amri against Abu Afak, the Jew, in [the month of] Shawwal in the beginning of the twentieth month from the hijrah" 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 Safi ur Rahman Al Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, p. 274.
  15. Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal, Ismaʼil R. Al-Faruqi, The life of Muḥammad: Volume 1976, Part 2, p. 223.
  16. Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal, Ismaʼil R. Al-Faruqi, The life of Muḥammad: Volume 1976, Part 2, p. 223.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, pp. 162-163.
  18. Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal, Ismaʼil R. Al-Faruqi, The life of Muḥammad: Volume 1976, Part 2, p. 223.
  19. Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal, Ismaʼil R. Al-Faruqi, The life of Muḥammad: Volume 1976, Part 2, p. 223.
  20. Safi ur Rahman Al Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, p. 274 (footnote 1).
  21. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, p. 308.
  22. Al Tabari, Isma'il Qurban Husayn (translator) (25 Sep 1990), The last years of the Prophet, State University of New York Press, p. 121, ISBN 978-0887066917, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=XxG8BsHNw-MC&pg=PA121  (online)
  23. Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 35. ASIN B0007JAWMK. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&q. "SARIYYAH FOR SLAYING KA'B IBN AL-ASHRAF Then (occurred) the sariyyah for slaying Ka'b Ibn al-Ashraf, the Jew. It took place on 14 Rabi' al-Awwal (4. September AC 624))" 
  24. Montgomery Watt, W.. "Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf". In P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  25. Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. p. 13. ISBN 0827601166. 
  26. Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. p. 13. ISBN 0827601166. 
  27. Uri Rubin, The Assassination of Kaʿb b. al-Ashraf, Oriens, Vol. 32. (1990), pp. 65-71.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp.151-153. (online)
  29. William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 14
  30. 30.0 30.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 204. (online)
  31. Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 14.
  32. Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 14.
  33. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 204, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=-ppPqzawIrIC&printsec=frontcover 
  34. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, p. 482. "THE KILLING OF SALLAM IBN ABU'L-HUQAYQ"
  35. Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 100, ISBN 978-0887063442, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PA100 
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 186-187. (online)
  37. Gabriel, Richard A. (2008), Muhammad, Islam's first great general, University of Oklahoma Press, p. 126, ISBN 9780806138602, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=nadbe2XP2o4C&pg=PA126 
  38. Gabriel, Richard A. (2008), Muhammad, Islam's first great general, University of Oklahoma Press, p. 126, ISBN 9780806138602, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=nadbe2XP2o4C&pg=PA126 
  39. Sunnah.org, says Ahmad 3:496, al-Waqidi 2:533, archive
  40. Abu Dawud 2:1244, hadithcollection.com (archive)
  41. Al Tabari, Isma'il Qurban Husayn (translator) (25 Sep 1990), The last years of the Prophet, State University of New York Press, pp. 121, ISBN 978-0887066917, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=XxG8BsHNw-MC&pg=PA121  (online)
  42. Ismāʻīl ibn ʻUmar Ibn Kathīr (2000), The life of the prophet Muḥammad: a translation of al-Sīra al-Nabawiyya, Garnet, p. 190, ISBN 978-1859640098, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=klAKAQAAMAAJ&q 
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0195773071. "The expeditions to Hamra' al-Asad and Qatan (March and June 625)"  (free online)
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 183. (online)
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, pp. 141–142, ISBN 978-0887063442, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PA147 
  46. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq’s Sīrat rasūl Allāh, p. 390.
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 47.4 Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq’s Sīrat rasūl Allāh, pp. 755-756 (footnotes).
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 S. A. Rahman, Punishment of Apostasy in Islam, pp. 25-26.
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 Asbab al-nuzul by al-Wahidi, Commentary of Quran 3:86, (online)
  50. De Mahdi Rizqullah Ahmad, Darussalam, A Biography of the Prophet of Islam (Vol 1 & 2), p. 433.
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 Abū Khalīl, Shawqī (2003). Atlas of the Quran. Dar-us-Salam. p. 242. ISBN 978-9960897547. 
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 211. (online)
  53. Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 147, ISBN 978-0887063442, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PA147 
  54. William Muir (2003), The life of Mahomet, Kessinger Publishing, p. 317, ISBN 9780766177413, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=QyIPouT4DqcC&printsec=frontcover 
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  58. 58.0 58.1 Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 222-224.
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  67. Template:Hadith-usc
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